2.2.3 Hierarchy of the European standards for machine safety

European safety standards can be divided into basic safety standards (type A standards), safety group standards (type B1 standards and type B2 standards) as well as machine-specific technical standards (type C standards).

The design principles and basic concepts of the type A standards, such as EN ISO 12100, are binding for all machines. Instructions for determining risks that are associated with the machine can be found there. Procedures and their approach for preventing risks are specified with the goal of integrating safety even before starting with the construction of the machine. Chapter 2.3 will go into detail on the steps associated with risk assessment and how to prevent such risks.

Type B1 standards describe general safety aspects and offer solutions for this, e.g., for the design of hard guards or for the approach speed that is required for calculating the safety distance for safety light curtains or multiple light beam safety devices. This topic is discussed in detail as well in chapter 4.

Normative requirements for special protective devices such as E-Stop buttons, safety gate switches, pressure-sensitive mats and pressure-sensitive edges or safety light curtains are grouped together in type B2 standards. There, you can find information on the design and testing of safety components that both the manufacturer of such products and the machine designer must take into account with the use in their machine.

Type C standards describe significant hazards, specific risks and measures for reducing these risks at individual machines or categories of machines. If such a C standard exists for the respective machine type, it has priority over a B or A standard. If additional hazards exist that are not addressed in the standard or if no special C standard exists for the machine that is to be planned, the risk reduction must be performed in accordance with A and B standards.

Type of standard European (EN) and international (ISO/IEC) standards
Standard name
A EN ISO 12100 Safety of machinery – General principles for design – Risk assessment and risk reduction
B EN ISO 13857 Safety of machinery – Safety distances to prevent dangerous areas being reached by the upper and lower limbs
EN 349
ISO 13854
Safety of machinery – Minimum gaps to avoid crushing of parts of the human body
EN ISO 13849-1 Safety of machinery – Safety-related parts of control systems
– Part 1: General principles for design
EN ISO 13849-2 – Part 2: Validation
EN ISO 13855 Safety of machinery – The positioning of protective equipment in respect to approach speeds of parts of the human body
EN 1037
ISO 14118
Safety of machinery – Prevention of unexpected start-up
EN/IEC 60204-1 Safety of machinery – Electrical equipment of machines
– Part 1: General requirements
EN/IEC 62061 Functional safety of safety-related electrical, electronic and programmable electronic control systems
prEN/TS 62046
IEC/TS 62046
Safety of machinery – Application of protective equipment to detect the presence of persons
EN ISO 13850 Safety of machinery – E-Stop – Design principles
EN 574
ISO 13851
Safety of machinery — Two-hand control devices — Principles for design and selection
EN 953
ISO 14120
Safety of machinery – Guards –
General requirements for the design and construction of fixed and movable guards
EN 1088
ISO 14119
Safety of machinery – Interlocking device associated with guards – Principles for design and selection
EN 1760-1
ISO 13856-1
Safety of machinery – Pressure-sensitive protective devices
– Part 1: General principles for design and testing of pressure-sensitive mats and pressure-sensitive floors
EN 1760-2
ISO 13856-2
– Part 2: General principles for design and testing of pressure-sensitive edges and pressure-sensitive bars
EN 1760-3
ISO/DIS 13856-3
– Part 3: General principles for design and testing of pressure-sensitive bumpers, plates, wires and similar devices
EN/IEC 61496-1 Safety of machinery – Electro-sensitive protective equipment – Part 1: General requirements and tests
prEN IEC 61496-2 – Part 2: Particular requirements for active optoelectronic protective devices
EN/IEC TS 61496-3 – Part 3: Particular requirements for active optoelectronic protective devices responsive to diffuse reflection (AOPDDR)
C EN 81-1 Safety rules for the construction and installation of lifts
– Part 1: Electric lifts
EN 289 Plastics and rubber machines – Press – Safety requirements
EN 415-6 Safety of packaging machines
Palletizers and depalletizers
EN 422 Plastics and rubber machines – Blow molding machines – Safety requirements
EN 528 Rail dependent storage and retrieval equipment. Safety requirements
EN 692 Machine tools – Mechanical presses – Safety (Note, however, that form-fitting clutches do not satisfy the safety requirements of directive 98/37/EC!)
EN 693 Machine tools – Safety – Hydraulic presses
EN 710 Safety requirements for foundry molding and coremaking machinery and plant associated equipment
EN ISO 10218-1 Robots and robotic devices – Safety requirements for industrial robots – Part 1: Robots
EN 848-1 Safety of woodworking machines. One side moulding machines with rotating tool.
– Part 1: Single spindle vertical moulding machines
EN 869 Safety requirements for pressure metal diecasting units
EN 940 Safety of woodworking machines – Combined woodworking machines
EN 972 Tannery machines – Reciprocating roller machines – Safety requirements
EN 1010-1
ISO 1010
Safety of machinery – Safety requirements for the design and construction of printing and paper converting machines
– Part 1: Common requirements
EN 1010-2 – Part 2: Printing and varnishing machines including pre-press machinery
EN 1114-1 Plastics and rubber machines – Safety requirements for extruders
EN 1218-1 Safety of woodworking machines – Tenoning machines – Part 1: Single end tenoning machines with sliding table
EN 1525 Safety of industrial trucks – Driverless corridor supply vehicles and their systems
EN 1526 Safety of industrial trucks – Additional requirements for automated functions on trucks
EN ISO 11111-1 Textile machinery – Safety requirements
– Part 1: Common requirements
EN ISO 11553-1 Safety of machinery – Laser processing machines
– Part 1: Laser safety requirements
EN 12387 Footwear, leather and imitation leather goods manufacturing machines
– Punching machines – Safety requirements
EN 12622 Machine tools – Safety of machine tools – Hydraulic press brakes
EN 12629-1 Machines for the manufacture of constructional products from concrete and calcium-silicate – Safety
– Part 1: Common requirements

This is not a complete list. Further information on machine standards can be found at, e.g., www.vdma.org or www.zvei.org. Standards in the original version are available from, e.g., Beuth Verlag GmbH, www.beuth.de.


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